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Muslims perform 5 prayers daily. Every prayer gives a particular prescribed and calculated time throughout that it should be performed.

Allah says, –  “O you who believe! Respond to (the call of) Allah and His Messenger when he calls you to that which gives you life.”-  Qur’an 8.24

The Prophet (P.B.U.H) said, – “The comparison of one who remembers Allah and one who does not, is like that of the living and the dead.” [Sahih Al-Bukhari]

Abu Ayyub Al-Ansari reported: A man came to the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, and he said, “O Messenger of Allah, teach me something, but make it concise.” The Prophet said, “When you stand for your prayer, then pray as if you are saying farewell. Do not say anything for which you must apologize, and abandon any desire to acquire what other people have.

Source: Sunan Ibn Mājah 4169

 Below mentioned is a brief description about how to find Prayer Times, just to help you so that you can easily understand the whole system.

To determine the precise period of time for every Prayer, we’d like to see 9 main points of time per every day.

Sahar:

The time to stop eating (for fasting), the time before Fajr.

Fajr:

When the sky begins to lighten, slightly the dawn.

Sunrise:

At the time that the primary part of the Sun seems higher than the horizon.

Dhuhr:

When the Sun begins to devolution reaching its highest point in the sky.

Asr:

The time once the length of an object’s shadow reaches or touches an exact element of the length of the thing itself and the length of that object’s shadow at noonday.

Sunset:

At the time that when the Sun vanishes below the horizon.

Maghrib:

The time just after sunset.

Isha:

The time of darkness when there is no light within the sky.

Midnight:           

The time from sunset to sunrise.

Astronomical Measures:

Below mentioned are two astronomical measures that are very much Important to analyze Prayer Times.

The above two astronomical measures can be analyzed accurately from “The Star Almanac”, or can be calculated approximately according to the details of time.

Calculating the Prayer Times:

 

To calculate the Prayer Times of the location, you should need to know the local time zone of that location and the latitude and the longitude of the location.

You should also need to consider the declination of the sun and the equation of the time:

Dhuhr:

The time of Dhuhr can be easily calculated by using this simple formula:

                                          Dhuhr = 12 + Time Zone – Lng/15 – EqT.

 

Sunrise and Sunset:

The time between the midday and the time at which sun reaches or touches an angle α below the horizon can be analyzed using the following formula:

 

The Actual formula of  sunrise and sunset can be computed using the below-mentioned formula:

§  Sunrise = Dhuhr – T(0.833),

§  Sunset = Dhuhr + T(0.833).

 

Fajr and Isha:

There are different opinions on calculating the Prayer Times of Fajr and Isha. There are different conventions of countries according to which they follow the rule:

For example,

According to the Muslim World League convention  Prayer Times are calculated like: Fajr = Dhuhr – T (18) & Isha = Dhuhr + T (17).

Asr:

The time once the length of an object’s shadow reaches or touches an exact element of the length of the thing itself and the length of that object’s shadow at noonday.

Asr Formula:

Hence,

In the other schools of thought:  Asr = Dhuhr + A (1), &  in the Hanafi school of thought is like Asr = Dhuhr + A (2).

Maghrib:

According to the Sunni point of view Maghrib starts when the sun has completely set below the horizon.

According to the Shia’s point of view as long as the redness in the eastern sky is still appearing, Maghrib should not be offered.

Midnight:

Midnight is calculated like the exact time from Sunset to Sunrise: Midnight = 1/2(Sunrise – Sunset).

Conclusion:

The technological advancement has introduced many softwares related to Azan clocks that use microphone and GPS to calculate the formula.

This provides Muslims much relaxation in determining Azan times. And these above-mentioned formulas provide exact time and make it easy to find prayer time according to your city and time zone. Prayer times depend on the condition of geography and sun.

 

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